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Tag Archives: e-learning

A Paper Presented at the 17th International Conference
of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education
March 20-24, 2006, Orlando, FL
J. Michael Blocher, Ph. D.
Educational Technology Program
College of Education
Northern Arizona University, USA


Student 2.0 would perform better in Open-Book/Open-Internet Examinations. This allows for assessing Higher Cognitive Abilities. But the traditionalist in us says no to Student 2.0.
student 2.0 sees the need to democratise higher education. They believe in the philosophy of connectivist pedagogies.
Unfortunately, when we provide training, we rarely conduct an evaluation of prior knowledge to inform the training.
(Teacher ICT Readiness in Ghana, Kofi B. Boakye, Dzigbodi Ama Banini p5)

Student 2.0 subscribes to the questioning dimension, reinventing Socrates. They do not accept as sacrosanct
theories without scrutiny, they identify with the concept of negotiated meaning and adhere to collaborative learning practices…

No company in the world has access to more data and more data processing power than Google. Once data has been sucked into Google Giant Vacuum Cache, it is ripe for analysis. After a decade of collecting (and digitizing) Google has created an astonishing resource that is ripe for value exploitation. Many organizations and companies have idly watched Google conquer a domain more completely than Alexander the Great could have ever dreamed. It only makes sense that Google reveals a little bit of its long term intention: Google internet stats. This is child’s play at this stage, but more value-driven data analysis will be developed soon. The data is there. Mining is next. When you organize the worlds data, you are eventually able to organize the world according to your interests as well.

Design of software and design of learning share similar attributes. I’d go so far as to say that instructional design would benefit from considering how software design has changed over the last decade. Consider this article as a quick overview – Frequent releases change software engineering…



With regard to the current stalemate Ghanaian Senior High School (SHS) Education is in, I would want to make a few suggestions as well as pose some questions, answers to which could help prevent this trend from repeating in the future. First, I suggest the Ghana Education Service (GES) help by adapting some lessons from other developing countries, in both Africa and worldwide especially with regards to political interference in the education process.
Secondly, I suggest the 2nd year students can be made to vacate the school premises for their respective homes since they are beneficiaries of the PSI-DL initiative. Thus they should be already accustomed to learning via television and radio, one thing that could be of immense help with regard to the 1st year students’ accommodation problem temporarily. This is because the three year groups (fourth, third and second years are pursuing a different curriculum hence one of such groups could be made to (sacrifice) one year of their program in order to allow the current (2010-2011) first years remain accommodated on campus to pursue the (old curriculum), as I call the curriculum that did not include much of the PSI-DL facilities. Can we know the official position of the CRDD on this and can anything be done on the current curriculum, can it be modified to make use of the affordances of ICTs?
Such a move and other ICT-enhanced educational projects can be made sustainable. Perhaps, some strategies need to be developed for eventual adaptation of the two curricula to ensure continuance and sustainability of ICT mediated SHS education. PTA bodies should perhaps form a national coalition of some sort or aid in the development of strong civil society organizations (CSOs) for advocacies on a national platform as well as help the government with regard to the current crisis.
The Mexicans have a strong SHS system, leveraging upon the affordances of ICTs and other innovative platforms to enhance their SHS system. Same can be said of China, the China TV University System(1). With regard to costs, such systems elsewhere have also achieved cost-effectiveness through economies of scale.
Is there equity of access to ICTs in education in Ghana? At least we can agree that quite a considerable number of households in Ghana own either a radio set or TV or both. Nonetheless, we should as a country heed the words of Bikas Sanyal, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning,” Until computers are available at home, a nationwide network of Community Learning Centers should be set up stocked with computer laboratories with broadband access and trained staff to access online distance learning courses”. This indeed is a clarion call we must heed to ensure global competitiveness.
On enhancing access, Ms Tinio alludes to research from Perraton, H. and C. Creed,“Applying New Technologies…”, p. 38-39. …”One exception is the television-based project Telesecundaria… which in 1997-98 was serving over 750,000 junior secondary students in 12,000 centres in Mexico”.( 2)

Thus the services of Instructional Designers can be contracted to help in further gravitation of the other courses or subjects if we want to see to the needs of the remaining batches (2010-2013) of SHS students until they are phased out of the system. The Americans have done this so we can also learn from them. (3)
Specifically of computers and the Internet, Prof. Blurton makes an argument that could apply to other ICTs especially television thus, “[w]hen considering whether ICT is “cost-effective” in educational settings, a definitive conclusion may not be possible for a variety of reasons. However, when considering the alternative of building more physical infrastructure, the cost savings to be realized from sharing resources, and the societal price of not providing access, ICT as a means of enabling teaching and learning appears to be an attractive and necessary alternative.”(4)
Such interventions “are more cost-efficient the larger their audience since the high cost of production is distributed over a larger viewer base while no staff expenditures are made for learner support”(5)


1 In Asia, the 44 radio and TV universities in China (including the China Central Radio and Television University), Universitas Terbuka in Indonesia, and Indira Ghandi National Open University have made extensive use of radio and television, both for direct class teaching and for school broadcasting, to reach more of their respective large populations. For these institutions, broadcasts are often accompanied by printed materials and audio cassettes.
Victoria Tinio, “ICTs IN EDUCATION”, p.14

2 Victoria Tinio, “ICTs IN EDUCATION”, p.19
3 While virtually every educational institution in North America now includes a service department charged with assisting instructors with course development, in all but exceptional cases, these departments have not disrupted the traditional breakdown of roles and responsibilities for course design and development.
4 Blurton, C.,“New Directions of ICT-Use in Education”, p. 24.
5 Victoria Tinio, “ICTs IN EDUCATION”, p.20

The increasing use of online learning tools for various purposes and in a multitude of domains is a phenomenon worthwhile analysing, in order to grasp the essential features of the new teaching/ studying paradigm, as well as its influence on the teacher- student and student-student interaction. At the same time, it is important to note that, while in some fields, e-learning has developed more successfully, becoming a self-standing educational method, in others it is still in an incipient phase, being used mostly in conjunction with classical face-to-face courses, as support material.


research discussion of trends in the development and applications of ICTs in Education

I am an ICT instructor at the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana.

ALL stakeholders welcome to join

TODAY’S session is a book review , knowing knowledge BY GEORGE SIEMENS


new media studies: new media literacies for tech. assisted learning

quality assurance, whose business?

MIT OPEN COURSEWARE : pace setters, worthy of emulation

case in point:

life long learning

archives electronic

facilitator roles

we are doing a review of
knowing knowledge, a book by an ardent educationist, mr George Siemens of the univ. of Manitoba

176 pages long and sells for $34 on Amazon A Creative Commons licensed version is available online

relevant for academic communities

we would analyse portions of the book, peruse for sake of time

Section 1
An Exploration of Theoretical Views of Knowing and Learning. p1

Knowledge has broken free from its
moorings, its shackles. Those, like
Francis Bacon, who equate knowledge
with power, find that the masses
are flooding the pools and reservoirs
of the elite. The filters, gatekeepers,
and organizers are awakening to a
sea of change that leaves them adrift,
clinging to their old methods of creating,
controlling, and distributing

credit: knowing knowledge

how do you evaluate the impact of wikis on learning? CONSTRUCTIVISM AS A PRINCIPLE

” We live as an integrated experience; we see, know, and function i n
connections. Life, like knowing, is not an isolated activity; it is a rich,
interconnected part of who we are. We cannot stop the desire to know. The desire to know is
balanced with our desire to communicate, to share,
to connect, and our desire to make sense, to understand, to know the meaning. In an effort to make ourselves understood, we create structures
to hold our knowledge: hierarchies, books, libraries, encyclopedias, the
internet, search engines. We create spaces where we can dialogue about
and enact knowledge: corporations, organizations, schools, universities,
societies. And we create tools to disseminate knowledge: peer-review
journals, discussion panels, conferences.

credit: knowing knowledge

Section 2
Changes and Implication?Moving toward Application p67

As Richard Restak states,
Yesterday’s predictions have become today’s reality. And in
the course of that makeover, we have become more frenetic,
more distracted, more fragmented,in a word, more hyperactive.

credit: knowing knowledge

for the big picture LIFELONG LEARNERS

p30 join in the discussion, contribute PROPOSALS


Change is shaping a new reality under the fabric of our daily lives. Seven
broad societal trends are changing the environment in which knowledge
1. The rise of the individual
2. Increased connectedness
3. Immediacy and now
4. Breakdown and repackaging
5. Prominence of the conduit
6. Socialization
7. Blurring worlds of physical and virtual

credit: knowing knowledge

so model of asynchronuous comm, NMM comes in by the use of threaded conversations
for student assessment and evaluation


Content. Context. Conduit: These shape the meaning of knowledge. Content. begins the knowledge cycle.
Context. makes it meaningful
Conduit . makes it relevant, current, and available

credit: knowing knowledge

Changed Characteristics and Flow of Knowledge. p79

Decentralization of knowledge. p92

“Decentralization of Knowledge
Things fall apart; the Center cannot hold.
William Butler Yeats85
Pieces are held everywhere, stitching together; reality is in the hands of
Marvin Minsky presents intelligence as the function of many little
parts, each mindless by itself. p86
When these parts connect or join, they
create i ntelligence. The decentralization of knowledge reverses the
joining formed by others (experts, editors) and permits individuals the
capacity to connect knowledge in a manner they find useful”.

credit: knowing knowledge

Learners’ skills. p113 (THE CASE FOR NEW MEDIA LITERACIES)

” What types of skills do our learners need? pg.103


Connecting with . . . Building networks

Being Human . . .

Creating and . . . Understanding implications, comprehending
Deriving Meaning meaning and impact.


Authentication and ensuring authenticity.

Altered Processes . . . Validating people and ideas

Critical and Creative . . . Question and dreaming.


Pattern Recognition.

Navigate Knowledge.

Landscape technology

Acceptance . . . Balancing what is known with the unknown?
of Uncertainty to see how existing knowledge relates to what .
we do not know.

Contextualizing . . . Understanding the prominence of context
(understanding seeing continuums; ensuring key contextual
(context games) issues are not overlooked in context-games.
Now that we have seen things break apart,
we need better ways of putting them back together.”

credit: Knowing Knowledge

“We are able to describe, not define knowledge…All Knowledge is Information,
but Not all Information is Knowledge.”

credit: knowing knowledge (book)

QUES: What is different tomorrow?


this is a research discussion of trends in the development and applications of New Media forms to societal needs esp. education

(internet technologies)

covering a range of key topics of special interest to ICTs and Education

comments suggestions questions highly welcome

first of all, i would want to sound a note of caution on the phenomenon of information persistence: blog entry jun 21, 2009
and i would review the Changing Stakeholders in the New Media Model (blog post of may 15, 2009)
and the relevance to academic communities

references to the Horizon Report

The 2009 Horizon Report is
a collaboration between
The New Media Consortium
and the
EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative

p5 talks about the phenomenon of Collective Intelligence

information literacy, Students are different, but a lot of educational material is not. Significant shifts are taking place in the ways scholarship and
research are conducted, and there is a need for innovation and leadership at all levels of the academy.

convergence has brought about another phenomenon. personalisation rights

p19 SAYS that
Collaborative work, too, is easier than ever before. Joint authoring of novels, comics, white papers,
and even textbooks is supported by tools designed for that purpose. Some of these have a specifically
educational focus, like Flat World Knowledge (, which aims to provide
free, peer-reviewed textbooks online.

you are welcome to join in to discuss strategies that will be used to bring about new or improved ways of teaching, learning for example,
The use of ICT to run instructional delivery systems:

( relevance to academic communities : teachers are now facilitators )

(continue this debate on coll. intelligence and how it ties in with the philosophy of constructivist learning
by alluding to submissions in a paper titled
The role of ICT in higher education for the 21st century: ICT as a change agent for education
by Ron Oliver of the
Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia)

Contextual guides are

1. The Dakar Educational Goals

Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence for all
so that recognized measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all especially in
literacy and essential life skills.

2. The Millennium Development Goals

3. President s Committee on Review of Educational Reform in Ghana (2002) equal access to education;
life-long education; call for open college system (DE), utilization of ICT and the Establishment of National Distance Education Council (1997)

additional references:
ICT in Education
by Victoria L. Tinio

p12 asks
How ICTs can help transform the learning environment into one that is

Creative Learning. ICT-supported learning promotes the manipulation of existing information
and the creation of real-world products rather than the regurgitation of received information.

Integrative learning. ICT-enhanced learning promotes a thematic, integrative approach to
teaching and learning.This approach eliminates the artificial separation between the different
disciplines and between theory and practice that characterizes the traditional classroom

Evaluative learning

many thanks to God Almighty, J Sackey, Wisdom, Bright et al